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Full text of "Linguistic Survey Of India Vol Ii Mon Khmer Siamese Chinese Families"

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The Lyng-ngam dialect of Khassi Is spoken in the west of the Khasi and Jaintia
Hills District, near the Garo Hills. So little has hitherto been known about it that it
has usually been considered to be a dialect of Gard. It is, howeYer, a form of Khassi,
and has no connexion with any language of the Tibeto-Burman family. It is estimated
tbat the number of its speakers is 1,850. It presents many peculiar features. Hie fol-
lowing are the principal points of difference between it and the Standard dialect. As it
has not been used as a literary dialect, there is no form of spelling, and the same word
will be found spelt in two or three different ways in the specimens.
The Vocabulary deserves study. Some of the commonest verbs are very differ-
ent from those used in the Standard dialect. There are also many minor differences of
pronunciation. 'A man5 fau-breo, not u-brltot and *a son' is u-Jshon, not u-Jchun.
Standard ng is often represented by nj. Thus doing for ding, fire, This sound is
represented, in other dialects by n.
A final h often appears as A, and an initial b as p. Thus, bar oh (Standard), all,
becomes yrok. Standard ei becomes aw. Thus, wei=^waw> one; dei=zdaw, be necessary.
As regaids(Articles/ they are frequently omitted. The masculine singular is w,
and the feminine singular is ka, as in the Standard dialect. U is, however, also used for
the plural instead of ki, as in ar-ngut u-khon-korangt two sons j je-met ngut u-mraw> how
many slaves. The diminutive article is often used without any apparent reason,—pos-
sibly as a neuter. Thus, i-iynong, the property.
NOUNS,—The prefix of the Accusative-Dative is se or sa, often contracted to
$', instead of fa.
The prefix of the Dative is hanam, Imam* or tnam. The Standard Dative-Locative
prefix ha is also used, and may be spelt he or hy. We also find ta or te.
For the Genitive besides the Standard jong, we have ba, am-bat ambt am, and am-
nam> Am-nam and am also mean * from'.
The plural sometimes takes the suffix met* See List of words, Hos. 140, 141, etc.
It is apparently only used with names of animals.
Adjectives.—The usual word for * males is Jcorang} and for * female' Jconthaw, in
place of the Standard shin-rang and A?y»f^respectively. As examples of comparison
we have,
Re-myrriang, good,
Mai myrriang, better*
V re-myrriang khymangt best.
The Standard suffix tarn is also used for 4he superlative.
The prefix re seems to correspond to the Standard adjectival prefix &*,
e Personal Pronouns are,—
Singular.                                                              Pl**»U
1st Person   ne                                            btdw,iaio.
*2nd Person   mit mei
3rd Person